Maat-ka-Ra Hatschepsut

last update: 04.03.2015

Survey of Persons

From the time of the Hatshepsut some persons, who had served her in important positions, are in particular well-known. Partially, these persons already had a important during the reign of Thutmosis I or II. or started their career and disappeared during the reign of the queen, others started their career under Hatshepsut and partially were acknowledged in their offices after the transfer of power to Thutmosis III. Some people were dismissed from their office by Thutmosis III - who naturally surrounded himself with his own staff. Frequently, destructions in the tombs indicate that the owner had fallen into disgrace after the accession of Thutmosis III.
The following table provides a short provisional - survey, if sufficiently material is available, individual persons will be presented on their own page .

Name /
Title(s) Time - Year x of Hatshepsut / Thutmosis III Origin Tomb
Ahmose Pen-nechbet
Chief Steward of the Storehouse (Granary, etc.)
General, Treasurer, King's first son of Elkab
already testified during the reign of Thutmosis II; one of the tutors of Princess Neferu-Ra;
his wife Ipu (Ipw) is possibly identical with the nurse of Thutmosis III who was also called Ipu (Roehrig, 1990) and who had been the mother of his Great Royal Wife SatJah; testified at least until regnal year 5
Elkab Tomb Nr. 2 in Elkab together with his brother Chaemwese (P&M V, 176/177) or:
Thebes, since funary cones were found only at Thebes
Ahmose, genannt Ametju
JaH-msw aA-mj-tjw
Chief Judge, Vizier     TT83
(Chief)-Steward (jmj-rA pr wr),
Overseer of Construction Work
testified as the Overseer during the erection of the 2nd pair of obelisks during regnal year 16 ? TT73
Name destroyed
Viceroy of Kush testified for regnal year 18 ? ?
Great Herald of the Queen,
Director of the Granary
appointed by Hatshepsut before the end of her rule, testified by her name in his tomb ? TT155
Djehuti / Dhout  +Hwtj Royal Steward and Herald   ? TT110
Djehuti / Dhout
Director of the Treasury, Overseer of the workers   Hermopolis TT11
1. Herald
Director of the Granary
testified by name-stone from Deir el-Bahari ? TT125
High Priest of Amun,
Overseer of the construction at KV20
most likely until year 16, since his wife Jmn-Htp is shown on an ostrakon sacrificing at Deir el-Bahari; owner of chapel No. 15 at Gebel es-Silsilah ? TT67
Jnbnj (oder auch Inj)
Commander of the Bowman, Overseer of the Weapons, Viceroy of Kush? since year 2. ? ? ?
Mayor of Thebes,
Overseer of the construction of KV20 the tomb of Thutmosis I. 
testified during the reign of Thutmosis I, Thutmosis II and Hatshepsut ? TT81
Kheruef hereditary prince testified during the reign of Hatshepsut/Thutmosis III ? known from a rock-cut graffito at Maghara, Sinai, dated into year 16
Minmose Overseer of the Granary testified during the reign of Hatshepsut ? MMA59 (later reused by the "Mistress of the House" Henettawy)?
"Counter of the Grain"   ? TT179
Scribe   ? TT65 ?
Scribe at the temple Djeser djeseru   Elkab Tomb of his father, Reneny, Elkab No. 7, Grotto above Djeser djeseru
Neferkhaut Scribe, chief secretary of crown princess Hatshepsut     MMA729
Treasurer testified by the expedition to Punt in year 9; uncertain thereafter;
his name in Deir el-Bahari had been destroyed; owner of chapel No. 14 at Gebel es-Silsilah
Gebelein Saqqara
2nd Priest of Amun,
possibly, also Overseer of the construction at the temple of Hatshepsut (Djeser djeseru)
shown in his tomb while collecting tribute from Punt - therefore, at least until year 9;
in an inscription in his tomb he claims the responsibility for the work on 2 obelisks during the reign of Thutmosis III
? TT39
Satnem painter testified by a statue (now in the Louvre, E14319)   PIT1379, Deir el-Medina
Nurse of the Queen (Hatshepsut)   ? KV60
Viceroy of Kush testified already during the reign of Ahmose, since regnal year 3. of Thutmosis I. Vice-Roy of Kush - perhaps until regnal year 2 of Hatshepsut ? ?
Senneferi * Oversear of the sealbearers, Overseer of the gold land of Amun owner of chapel No. 13 at Gebel es-Silsilah ? TT99
Director of the Domain of Amun, Overseer of construction work date of appointment uncertain;
testified until year 16 (the year when the 2nd pair of obelisks had been erected);  owner of chapel No. 16 at Gebel es-Silsilah
Armant (Iuni) TT71
name destroyed
%n.j mn
Nurse of God's Wife of Amun   ? TT252
Ty (Tai)
Treasurer most likely appointed by Hatshepsut shortly before her end, testified until year 25 of Thutmosis III ? ?
Chamberlain   ? TT342
(Chief)-Steward (jmj-rA pr wr) denominates himself after King "Hatshepsut", therefore, he can not be appointed before year 2 ? ?
Scribe of the Treasury of Amun;
Vizier since year 5
from to the inscriptions in his tomb, TT131, the appointment of User-Imun (= Wsr Jmn) as a "Supporter" for his old father, Ahmose Ametju, is quite well-known. Helck (1955) translated - the unfortunately incomplete - text. The audience, during which the appointment of User-amun had been announced, is described also on a fragment of the so-called "Papyrus Turin" (= pTurin). Since the pTurin gives a date, it is thereby possible to determine the appointment of User-Imun as "Vizier "(this date is used to date the accession of the Hatshepsut; see also "Coronation - however when?");
died between years 28 to 32;
owner of chapel No. 17 at Gebel es-Silsilah
Thebes TT61/TT131
? origin or assignment of the tomb questionable
* is to be dated into the reign of Thutmosis III.

During the 20-year long reign of Hatshepsut an extensive schedule of work (see also buildings) was executed. The execution resulted in a lot of information about temples and domains, their equipment and administration. Furthermore, from the same time there are numerous hints to different persons as well as their activities and/or offices in the administration of temple domains. Naturally, the most information available are related to the most prominent temples of Amun.

For example, Senenmut reports on different monuments about the work done in Karnak, Deir el-Bahari, Ascheru and Luxor and that all the work in the temples of the Amun and the Mut was completed under his supervision.

The treasurer Dhout indicates in a long list, which activities or construction measures were executed under his supervision in the area of Waset (Thebes) for Amun:
a shrine, a gate, doors in Deir el-Bahari, doors in "Appearance of the Clarified", the reorganization of the floor in Ipet isut (Karnak temples), a shrine from ebony with stairs, two doors in Karnak, jewelries, two obelisks, the gate "The Appearance of Amun in the Morning ", several offering tables, boxes, container, dresses and a shrine made of granite.

In his tomb, TT11, the so-called "Northampton-Stela" was discovered. This stela enumerates the work, for which Dhout claimed the responsibility for himself. Among the work listed he tells that he had been responsible for the production at a pair of obelisks, he literally says:

""I was the highest commander, who had given the orders. I led the craftsmen during their work on the two large obelisks, which were about 108 ells (approx. 54 m) high and completely covered with electron. They fulfilled the two lands with their lighting."

The text does not specify the obelisks he is talking about. Obviously, he can not talk about the 2nd pair of obelisks erected by Hatshepsut because these do not fit the specification anyhow (the height of the one which is still standing is approx. 29 m). Possibly, the text refers to the first pair erected by Hatshepsut but from this pair only rubble is remaining, so that their height is unclear. Furthermore, there are certain doubts about, whether the Egyptians were technical able, to manufacture obelisks of this height. Most likely, the height mentioned in the text is a mistake or a propagandistic exaggeration.

Duauneheh mentions the manufacturing of columns, gates, false doors and boxes under his supervision.

The steward Amenhotep had been responsible for the production of carriages, shrines, statues, collars and obelisks for the temple of Amun.

Hapuseneb, High Priest of Amun, was responsible for the building of a ship, a gate, a shrine, for the production of temple equipment, door wings and buildings.

During the reign of Hatshepsut the number of testified persons, who served in the administration of the temple of Amun on different hierarchic levels, increases. From the upper level of the temple hierarchy the high priest as well as the 2. and the 3. priest are known.
In the domain of the temple, i.e. in the estates belonging to the temple, the following offices (or titles) are testified: Chief of the Granary, Chief of the Cattle, Chief of the Fields, Construction Supervisor and Chief of the Workshops. Two "officials" were responsible for the treasury of the temple. Beyond that several officials from middle and lower levels of the temple administration are also testified repeatedly.

At the beginning of her reign the domain was controlled by the high priest. During the reign of Hatshepsut the administration of the temple of Amun was rearranged whereby the profane part of the temple was separated from the ecclesiastical part and got an own director responsible for the total domain (the profane part) of the temple - and Senenmut was appointed to this office. It was also assumed occasionally that this office was especially established for Senenmut.

The new office covered the command of the total domain, the granary, the cattle stock, the fields and gardens, the treasury, the building "industry" and the craftsmen of the temple. However, the accumulation of several offices in one hand remained limited to the upper hierarchic levels of the administration, thus on the (total) control of the domain and on the "High Priest" of the temple. In the lower levels it was rather an exception.

Based on the information about the people who were appointed to an office also the social groups, from which Hatshepsut recruited them, can be classified:
- "new" officials from common origin
- foreigners
- officials who had already served for a long time
- members of the provincial aristocracy
- offsprings of old-established families whose members had served frequently as officials

Numerous members of the temple administration were - if ascertainable - from the group of the "new" officials from common origin:
the director of total domain, Senenmut, the 2. Priest of Amun, Pui-em-Re, and the construction supervisor of the temple, Amen-hotep, mentioned as the only title of their fathers the title "Honorable" (zAb). The chief of the treasury, Dhout, originates from the provincial aristocracy of Hermopolis, the chiefs of the granary, Ahmose Pen-nechbet, probably originates from a family, which has already lived at Thebes for a long time. On the other hand, the father of the High Priest, Hapuseneb, was already employed as a "lector" in the temple of Karnak.

summarized after:
Eichler, "Die Verwaltung des "Hauses des Amun" in der 18. Dynastie.", 2000

Viceroy of Kush
During the reign of Hatshepsut the sequence of the holders of the important office of the "Viceroy of Kush" (= King's son of Kush) is poorly testified and therefore, occasionally subject of a discussion. A substantial part of the problem concerning the order is the destruction of numerous inscriptions under Thutmosis III..

Well documented is the career of an official called Seni, who obviously was already active during the reign of Ahmose. During the 3. regnal year of Thutmosis I., he was appointed to "Viceroy by Kush" and he had retired from the office under Thutmosis II. (Pamminger, 1992). Furthermore, it seems to be quite clear that after the death of Hatshepsut and starting with regnal year 23 of Thutmosis III., Nehi (NHj) served as the viceroy. During the reign of the Hatshepsut, i.e. between Seni and Nehi, two officials, Inebni and Amen-em-nekhu, may have held this office

With regard to Amen-em-nekhu, it is well documented that - in regnal year 18 of Hatshepsut - he has been the "Viceroy of Kush", possibly, another, but destroyed inscription dated to regnal year 20 refers to him.

With regard to Inebni only one block statue which is showing him (see below; British Museum, London, EA 1131) is dated into the reign of Hatshepsut. The inscription on that block statue mentions his name (still readable) and the names of two kings, that of Hatshepsut (defined as "Good Goddess, Lady of the Two Lands", name destroyed) and that of Thutmosis III.. In the text (the hieroglyphics were cut into the stone and then painted in blue) he let us know that he had held the title "Commander of the Bowmen" and has been the overseer of the royal weapons. Some Egyptologists have also "read" from the text that Inebni had also served as "King's son of Kush". Pamminger doubts this reading, particularly since that is not testified anywhere else. After his interpretation there was no further "Viceroy of Kush" between Seni and Nehi, except Amen-em-nekhu.
In contrast, El-Sabbahy (GM 129, 1992) accepts this earlier reading and arranges Inebni as "Viceroy of Kush" between Amen-em-nekhu and Nehi.

Block statue of Inebnj (British Museum, London, EA 1131)

Copyright: Dr. Karl H. Leser (Iufaa)